Genetic research and technology have undergone significant developments over the last decade. Research in this field is essential for the advancement of medical treatments. Without it, chances to find new and improved treatments in medicine are greatly limited. Human genetic enhancement is a controversial topic, but research in this area holds some of the biggest promises for future applications. It will require a thorough understanding of human genetics before scientists can alter the human genome at the embryonic level, but once that is achieved, it may provide solutions for some incurable genetic diseases such as down syndrome.